N.2 History and wish list

- Aug. 26, 2018. Version 5.63 alpha.
The main new thing is a correction in section 6.23 on Semiconductors. In the detailed explanation of how n-type semiconductors work, I wrote somewhere “conduction band” where I meant

valence band.

This of course does not improve clarity. Even after fixing, I thought the discussion was still confusing, so I rewrote the corresponding paragraphs from scratch. - July 3, 2018. Version 5.62 alpha.
Mainly rewrites of Hartree-Fock derivation {D.54}. If I cannot follow my own reasoning, it is pretty bad.

- April 27, 2018. Version 5.61 alpha.
Rewrote section 9.1.1 for readability. Also rewrote addendum {A.7}. Other minor rewrites.

Reposting because an (ununderstood) latex2html bug appeared out of nothing with the (tricky) way

1 is formatted on the web pages. This bug is not repeatable*and it did not happen for the colorized version nor for the remake.*I am putting in some precautions anyway. - April 20, 2018. Version 5.60 alpha.
Rewrote the introductory Hartree-Fock section 9.3.1 to be more readable and more independent of earlier chapters. Expanded on the description of Hartree-Fock correlation energy in 9.3.5.4 and its note N.18. Incomplete, but I am posting it now because I found and fixed some ugly errors.

- Mar. 4, 2018. Version 5.59 alpha.
Corrected a typo

( instead offor orbital angular momentum) at the start of section 12.8. In Multiple-Particle Systems:

In the periodic table, added the recently assigned names for element numbers 113, 115, 117, 118. Now every element in the table has a real name.

In Macroscopic systems:

Completely rewrote note N.9 explaining how band gaps arise if you add a bit of a periodic potential to the free electron gas. Corrected “the crystal spacing is a half-integer multiple of the [Bragg] wave lengths” into “double the atom spacing is a whole multiple of the wave lengths”. (

half-integer

seems to exclude “whole integer.”)In Time Evolution:

Cleaned up the links in the pdf to the animations on the web. Also, weblinks now go to the same server as the pdf is downloaded from.

Completely rewrote addendum A.17 on the virial theorem, as I now expect I will need it when I cover density functional theory.

In Classical and Quantum Thermodynamics:

More rewrites in

Specific Heats

.In Nuclei:

Added the

vs form of all vs graphs as external pdf files. Showed the nuclear decay processes first in a “Chart of the Nuclides”

( vs) form.Explained how the

vs form clearly illustrates that nucleons of the same type like to pair up, while the vs form does not. In subsection 14.5.1, added a graph showing half-lifes in addition to the nuclear decay processes.

Changed spin colors to make the individual spins easier to recognize.

Left out the unused colors in the legends for the same reason.

In the spin plots, nuclei whose spin has reservations are now shown in the expected color instead of yellow, with a light check mark (a cross if none yet). That increases information content a lot. All nuclei now get a mark in the spin plots except those with unknown spin (yellow squares). Added a mark for nuclei in which an imperfect odd-nucleon model lowers the spin by one unit.

For the parity plots, used light colors instead of yellow crosses to indicate which parities with reservations are predicted OK or not. In the odd-even respectively even-odd parity graphs, shell model parity lines are now only shown at the odd-even, respectively even-odd locations. Both sets of odd-

parity lines are now shown in the odd-odd parity graphs. In the beta decay rate plots, added the stable nuclei to fill in the holes with known data.

In gamma decay, I converted subsection N.36 into a note. Which it should always have been, as it is not part of standard theory but an hypothesis. Also rewrote it quite a bit to improve the presentation.

- Nov 1, 2016. Version 5.57 alpha. Corrected a number of errors
and poor phrasings pointed out by various readers, as in the
acknowledgements.
Corrected

molecular mass

in “The New Variables” intomolar mass

. Cannot complain about others if I do it myself.Yes, I need to get back to doing some more serious writing on this book.

- Feb 4, 2015. Version 5.57 alpha. Corrected some rather
horrible typos pointed out by Rob Vossen.
- Nov 14, 2013. Version 5.56 alpha.
The book has been converted to be processed by l2h instead of
L
^{A}TEX2`HTML`-FU. Web page hyphenation and bad-math-break prevention are now done by l2h, instead of inside the latex source. And the Wordperfect and MS Word grammar checkers can now be applied. (In document pieces, to be sure. Not on all 1,600 pages at once!) Removedwe

from the notations. More rewriting of {A.9}. Added Flerovium and Livermorium to the periodic table. Corrected some errors pointed out by kind readers. - June 15, 2012. Version 5.55 alpha.
Added hyperspheres to the notations.
Finished {A.8} and {D.22}.
Rewrote {A.9}. These may need some more editing.
The problems of the previous version with the index have been
fixed. Various small problems fixed.
Various corrections of this version were posted the next few days. They only differ in formatting of the index and notations. Also some very minor editing, part of which may not have been posted. But now the formatting problems really seem fixed. I hope.

- June 11, 2012. Version 5.54 alpha.
Added the screened Poisson equation to {D.2}.
Rewrote {A.8} on positive unique ground states
and added an explanatory figure. Needs more work.
Added an entry on spherical coordinates to the notations.
Cleaned up and expanded {D.14} a bit.
Editing of {A.42}.
Improved the values of the physical constants in the notations.
Improved alignment of inline math for Internet Explorer.
Took inline equations apart and added tuned relation symbols.
Created a better key image for key points.
Improved appearance of the key point and question lists.
Bolded math labels in the notations and added some space behind the labels.
In the web version symbols are no longer on preceding lines.
In the pdf, links are now enclosed by non-offensive thin grey lines.
Urls are now enclosed by non-offensive thin black lines.
In html, very long words, including all 14 characters long or more.
will now hyphenate if needed. That includes
one-dimensional,
two-dimensional,
three-dimensional,
four-dimensional,
- dimensional. accomplishments, acknowledgments, anticommutators, antisymmetrically, antisymmetrization, ... Also in html, stupid line breaks at inline math images should no longer occur.Please note that surely ten thousands of small changes have been made. Some are bound to have introduced a problem, especially in formatting. I do think the esthetics of the web pages has been improved tremendously. Even more so for Internet Explorer, I guess. (But I use linux.)

Added note: the zipped version of this date has some minor format corrections, but also an error fix in {D.22} (which still needs more work.)

Added note: unfortunately, now the index looks like hell.

- May 4, 2012. Version 5.53 alpha.
Corrections and extensions to fundamental forces, section 7.5.2.
Editing of {A.42}.
- Apr. 25, 2012. Version 5.52 alpha.
Editing of {A.42}.
Corrected figures 3.3 and N.2.
Very minor changes the next day.
- Feb. 15, 2012. Version 5.51 alpha.
Improved discussion of field operators in {A.15.9}.
Added a brief explanation of the Casimir force, {A.23.4}.
Noted that pure particle and pure antiparticle states preserve norm,
{D.32} and {A.15.9}.
Corrected that time reversal is antiunitary, not unitary,
{A.19.2}
Greatly expanded the discussion of the Fourier inversion theorem and
Parseval, {A.26}.
Added separate derivation of the Green’s function of the
Poisson equation, {D.2}.
Added an example of variational calculus, {A.2}.
Added fields to classical Lagrangian and Hamiltonian analysis,
{A.1.5}.
Added a new addendum on forces by particle exchange, {A.22}.
While already big, this one will need to be expanded in a later
version.
Added that lone systems have definite spin and parity to chapter
7.3.
Added draft explanation of the OPEP to {A.42}.
- Dec. 15, 2011. Version 5.50 alpha.
Further rewrites and correction of a couple of glaring
errors in Quantum Field Theory in a Nanoshell {A.15}.
I think this addendum is now much better than it was originally.
Removed interpretation of the photon wave function again.
Rewrites in 8.7
- Dec. 12, 2011. Version 5.49 alpha. Corrected previous history
item. The Dirac
matrices are now defined, {A.36}. Rest mass is now just , not. Added note about Majorana neutrinos to {A.44}. Added reference for gauge symmetries in {A.19.5}. Put in some disclaimers in {A.42}. Added an interpretation of the photon wave function. There is now a much needed draft rewrite of Quantum Field Theory in a Nanoshell {A.15}. - Nov. 18, 2011. Version 5.48 alpha.
Added a complete comparison of the mixed dipole and quadrupole gamma
decays, figure 14.65. Minor corresponding rewrites.
Nowadays NuDat 2 no longer tells you that you are requesting
too much data and simply gives you partial data. That explained
why M1 and E2 transitions stopped so quickly. It has been corrected.
Added a description of neutrinos, {A.44}.
- Nov. 14, 2011. Version 5.47 alpha.
Corrected the definition of
interval

in special relativity to be author-dependent. Due to a program error, in the comparison of gamma decay with data the program was actually selecting the nuclei to be as much the same as possible, instead of as much different as possible. It has been corrected. Not that it makes much of a visual difference. The text has been rewritten a bit too. In thecage of Faraday

proposal, stupid me forgot about measured electromagnetic moments. That seems to kill off Meisner pretty well. It has been rewritten. - Nov. 9, 2011. Version 5.46 alpha.
Modified the
cage of Faraday

proposal a bit. - Nov. 8, 2011. Version 5.45 alpha.
Added the cage-of-Faraday proposal, chapter N.36.
- Nov. 8, 2011. Version 5.44 alpha.
Added an example without charge independence to isospin to clarify the
need for it. Corrected a typo in a formula and minor editing.
Added examples to E0 internal conversion and edited the text a bit
in chapter 14.20.6.
Added a comparison of the single-particle theory of gamma decay
with experimental data to chapter 14.20.5.
- Oct. 25, 2011. Version 5.43 alpha.
Further editing of isospin. Seems to be OK for now.
Some minor editing of quantum field theory.
- Oct. 17, 2011. Version 5.42 alpha.
Rewrote the discussion for isospin. The original discussion was
only defensible for a very crude model of the deuteron. The current
discussion is better but needs more work.
- Oct. 12, 2011. Version 5.41 alpha.
I finally got around to taking out some very dubious statements on
gamma decay in 14.20 that have been bothering me for years.
The relief is tremendous. I even managed to find a ballpark for the
missing

E0 transition. - Oct. 03, 2011. Version 5.40 alpha.
Some minor corrections and improvements on emission of radiation.
- Sep. 30, 2011. Version 5.39 alpha.
Some minor corrections and improvements on emission of radiation.
Being doing other stuff.
- Sep. 26, 2011. Version 5.38 alpha.
Adds a table of hydrogen radial correction factors.
Deals better with the magnetic transitions of nonrelativistic hydrogen.
- Sep. 16, 2011. Version 5.37 alpha.
Minor changes and corrections in the previous items. Expanded the
table with Weisskopf/Moszkowski correction factors.
- Sep. 12, 2011. Version 5.36 alpha.
Minor changes in section 8.4.
Added addendum {A.25} on multipole transitions,
with corresponding derivations and notes {D.43},
{N.13}, and {N.14}.
Took out claim from Wikipedia that the 21 cm line is highly
forbidden and replaced it with low energy.
- Aug. 10, 2011. Version 5.35 alpha.
Completed addenda A.23 and A.24
Added section 8.4.
- Aug. 5, 2011. Version 5.34 alpha.
Significant rewrite of section 7.4.3. Doing the electric
transitions first really helps getting rid of all the ifs and buts.
Some rewrite of addendum N.10.
Improved the discussion of two-photon zero angular momentum in
section 7.4.4.
On second thought, bringing up the alpha particle in N.10
was a bad idea. The worst part is that the alpha decay has an exponential
dependence on angular momentum due to tunneling. That is less of an
issue in beta decay, but then there is the blasted neutrino. So the
particle is now a spinless nonrelativistic photon. Gee.
The Lorentz gauge is now the Lorenz gauge.
The Coulomb gauge is no longer misrepresented.
Rewrote addenda A.23 on second quantization and
A.24 on quantum derivation of spontaneous emission.
They are incomplete; I am posting drafts since I have to go to work anyway.
- July 27, 2011. Version 5.33 alpha. The electric and magnetic
fields are now
and . Hopefully. Based on [24, p. 240] and a similar message in a physics news group, took the bold step of defining a “type 2 wave function” for the photon. Some rewrite of addendum A.14. Correspondingly added notes A.21 and D.36 on the photon wave function and its derivation. They are incomplete; I am posting drafts since I have to go to work anyway. - July 20, 2011. Version 5.32 alpha.
Corrected statement on parity of the photon. Whatever I learn on
the web does not hold up well.
Added addendum A.20 on the spin of vector particles.
- July 18, 2011. Version 5.31 alpha.
Rewrote note physics of the fundamental commutators.
Added an addendum with Maxwell's wave equations.
Added the Klein-Gordon equation. Or at least, added a separate
addendum for it, to eventually replace scattered discussions of it
elsewhere.
- July 12, 2011. Version 5.30 alpha.
Normalized appendices to allow question lists in them.
Moved WKB to an addendum.
Minor rewrites in time evolution.
Added missing links to derivations in relativity.
- July 05, 2011. Version 5.29 alpha.
Moved derivations from addenda to derivations.
Added deuteron data from Argonne v18.
Slight rewrites for relativity.
Relocated some addenda.
Cleaned up adiabatic theorem addendum and improved derivation.
The Heisenberg formulation has been moved to an addendum.
There are now direct links to the animated figures on the web in the pdf.
The unsteady particle in the pipe has been animated.
Made J the symbol of generic angular momentum, with much effort.
In 3D scattering, D is a private symbol of Griffiths according to his
book on elementary particles, not a standard symbol as I thought. It
has been removed.
Rewrote intro to two-state systems.
Changed action in relativistic case to be
stationary,

rather thanleast.

Dropped claim obtained from Internet of no population inversion for semiconductor lasers. Gee. Major rewrite of the first half of time evolution. - June 2, 2011. Version 5.28 alpha.
Draft rewrite of the section on modeling the deuteron.
Draft rewrite of the addendum on nuclear forces.
- May 30, 2011. Version 5.27 alpha.
Inverted history list.
Textual formulae make less use of images.
Textual superscripts like powers and degree signs have been joined to their
root with nobr tags.
Made table formatting more consistent.
Line length in html (at recommended browser width) has been reduced
a bit. It is still longer than in the pdf version, but about the
same as Lamport’s LaTeX book.
Maximum formulae, table, and figure lengths are now consistent in
html and equal to the recommended browser width. This required a 3%
reduction in displayed formulae size.
Table sizes must be explicitly set due to buggy L
^{A}TEX2`HTML`code. Center environments have been replaced by centering to eliminate redundant space, usually after the caption. Fixed formatting problems in table of contents and lists of figures, tables. Pdf links to figures and tables do now show the actual thing. Advanced angular momentum has been made a separate chapter. HTML table of contents has been cleaned up. HTML truncation of the two electron Clebsch Gordon figure has been fixed. Actually, it has NOT been fixed. :() A new attempt has been implemented. Expanded the description of fundamental forces in the section on particle exchange. Draft rewrite of the first two sections of nuclei. Made the section on nuclear forces a more limited addendum. Also eliminated a bad mistake in it. - Apr. 25, 2011. Version 5.26 alpha.
Some further minor rewrites of the section on index notation.
Spell check and minor rewrites of the relativity chapter in general.
- Apr. 18, 2011. Version 5.25 alpha.
Rewrote section on index notation, added an addendum about it.
- Mar. 14, 2011. Version 5.24 alpha.
Bisected addenda on quantum field theory and perturbation theory.
Started just a bit cleaning up the chapter on nuclei. One tiny
step at a time.
- Mar. 14, 2011. Version 5.23 alpha.
Brought structure into the 124 notes.
Relocated the chapter
Additional Topics

in the addenda notes. Made relativity a separate Part. Minor rewrites in the intro to nuclei. - Mar. 8, 2011. Version 5.22 alpha.
Noted and fixed a blunder on cosmic redshift. Sometimes I do not
seem to think at all. Everyone else seems to make the same blunder??
- Mar. 7, 2011. Version 5.21 alpha.
All remaining low-resolution bitmap graphics are gone.
Spherical Hankel and Bessel functions have been taken out of the
note on 3D scattering and given their own note. The same for the
integral Schrödinger equation.
The remaining note on 3D scattering has been given a much needed
clean up.
Some rewrites in the note on symmetries.
- Feb. 7, 2011. Version 5.20 alpha.
Some changes in the section and note on conservation laws and symmetries.
A large fraction of the remaining low-resolution bitmap graphics
has been replaced by higher quality vector graphics.
The note on special relativity has been turned into a chapter.
- Jan. 16, 2011. Version 5.19 alpha.
Very minor changes in the section on conservation laws and symmetries.
- Jan. 3, 2011. Version 5.18 alpha.
Revised section on conservation laws and symmetries.
Slight cosmetic improvements in some figures.
- Nov. 30, 2010. Version 5.17 alpha.
Moved hydrogen and helium to the end of the periodic table; I simply
got tired of saying
except hydrogen

andexcept helium.

Rewrote the subsection on ionic conduction. - Nov. 16, 2010. Version 5.16 alpha.
Second and for now final version of the subsection on typical metals
and insulators.
- Nov. 12, 2010. Version 5.15 alpha.
First rewrite of the subsection on typical metals and insulators.
- Nov. 1, 2010. Version 5.14 alpha.
Various minor rewrites in the chapter on macroscopic systems.
- Oct. 11, 2010. Version 5.13 alpha.
Technical modifications to allow links in the pdf. Many people seem
to use the pdf for reading instead of the web pages.
- Oct. 4, 2010. Version 5.12 alpha.
Various minor rewrites, including for subsection 6.22.5.
A number of poor phrasings pointed out by Ramaswami Sastry Vedam corrected.
- Sep. 13, 2010. Version 5.11 alpha.
Main change is the addition of subsection 6.22.5 giving
an introduction to the band theory of three-dimensional crystals.
- Aug. 30, 2010. Version 5.10 alpha. Added spectra of actual
materials to the section on crystal momentum. Fixed an erroneous
statement about the presentation of spectra. Fixed an error where
spins were listed, but not included in the transformation in the
section on conservation laws and symmetries.
- Aug. 23, 2010. Version 5.09 alpha.
Rewrites of p-n junction and transistor.
- Aug. 9, 2010. Version 5.08 alpha.
Third law moved to notes.
Edits in the chapter on macroscopic systems.
Draft proof of the Onsager relations added and immediately removed. Gee.
It will not be back.
- July 28, 2010. Version 5.07 alpha.
Better description of the third law.
Some rewrites and error corrections in thermoelectrics.
- July 23, 2010. Version 5.06 alpha.
Some rewrites and error corrections in thermoelectrics.
- July 19, 2010. Version 5.05 alpha.
Some error corrections in
thermoelectrics and a discussion of the Onsager relations added.
- July 16, 2010. Version 5.04 alpha.
Some rewrites and error corrections.
- July 13, 2010. Version 5.03 alpha.
Various rewrites and error corrections. Also a new periodic table.
- June 6, 2010. Version 5 alpha.
Lots of spelling and grammar corrections, minor
rewrites, and additions of summaries during teaching a 3 hour DIS on
quantum literacy.

Added a chapter on nuclei. Added sections and tables on angular momentum of shells. Alpha decay has been moved to the new chapter on nuclei. Forbidden decays are now included. Various program improvements/tuning. Correctedeffective

mass (for a two-body system) intoreduced.

Added a chapter on macroscopic systems to Part II. Much of this chapter has been scavenged from Part III. It is supposed to provide some more practical knowledge in various areas. It was inspired by the DIS mentioned above, which showed you cannot do much of Part III in a single semester. The semiconductor discussion in the chapter is all new. - March 22, 2009. Version 4.2 alpha.
Spin matrices for systems greater than spin one half are now
discussed.
Classical Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics is now covered in a
note.
Special relativity is now covered in a note.
There is now a derivation of the hydrogen dipole selection rules
and more extensive discussion of forbidden transitions.
Angular momentum and parity conservation in transitions are now discussed.
The Gamow theory data are now corrected for nuclear versus atomic
mass. There is no perceivable difference, however.
The alignment bars next to the electromagnetic tables in the web
version should have been eliminated.
- Jan. 1, 2009. Version 4.0 alpha reorders the book into two parts to
achieve a much better book structure. The changed thinking
justifies a new version.
Parts of the lengthy preface have been moved to the notes. The
background sections have been combined in their own chapter to
reduce distraction in part II.
There is now a derivation of effective mass in a note.
A few more commutators were added to the reference.
There is a note on Fourier transforms and the Parseval equality.
The stupid discussion of group velocity has been replaced by a
better (even more stupid?) one.
Two of the gif animations were erroneous (the nondelta
function tunneling and the rapid drop potential) and have been
corrected. High resolution versions of the animations have been
added.
Time-dependent perturbation theory is now concisely covered.
WKB theory is now covered.
Alpha decay is now included.
The adiabatic theorem is now covered.
Three-dimensional scattering is now covered, in a note.
Fixed a mistyped shelf number energy in the thermo chapter.
The derivations of the Dirac equation and the gyromagnetic ratio of
electron spin have been moved to the notes.
Note D.71 now gives the full derivation of the expectation
Lorentz force.
The direction of the magnetic field in the figure for Maxwell’s
fourth law was corrected.
A section on electrostatic solutions has been added.
The description on electrons in magnetic fields now includes the
diamagnetic contribution.
The section on Stern-Gerlach was moved to the electromagnetic section
where it belongs.
Electron split experiments have been removed completely.
There is now a full coverage of time-independent small perturbation
theory, including the hydrogen fine structure.
Natural frequency is now angular frequency. Gee.
The Planck formula is now the Planck-Einstein relation.
The Euler identity is now the apparently more common Euler formula.
Black body as noun, blackbody as compound adjective.
- Jan. 19, 2009. Version 4.1 alpha.
There is now a discussion of the Heisenberg picture.
The horribly written, rambling, incoherent, section on nearly-free
electrons that has been bothering me for years has been rewritten
into two much better sections.
There is now a discussion on the quantization of the electromagnetic
field, including photon spin and spontaneous emission.
The Rayleigh formula is now derived.
The perturbation expansion of eigenfunctions now refers to
Rellich’s book to show that it really works for degenerate
eigenfunctions.
- July 14, 2008. Version 3 beta 4.2 expands the section on
unsteady two-state systems to include a full discussion of
time-dependent perturbation theory,

read emission and absorption of radiation. Earlier versions just had a highly condensed version since I greatly dislike the derivations in typical textbooks that are full of nontrivial assumptions for which no justification is, or can be, given at all. - July 2, 2008. Version 3 beta 4.1 adds a new,
advanced,

chapter on basic and quantum thermodynamics. An advanced section on the fundamental ideas underlying quantum field theory has also been added. The discussion of the lambda transition of helium versus Bose-Einstein condensation has been rewritten to reflect the considerable uncertainty. Uniqueness has been added to the note on the hydrogen molecular ion ground state properties. Added a missingin the Rayleigh-Jeans formula. - April 7, 2008. Version 3 beta 4 adds key points and exercises
added to chapter 4, with the usual rewrites to improve clarity. The
Dirichlet completeness proof of the Fourier modes has been moved
from the solution manual to the notes. The actual expressions for
the hydrogen molecular ion integrals are now given in the note. The
London force derivation has been moved to the notes. The subsection
of ferromagnetism has been rewritten to more clearly reflect the
uncertainty in the field, and a discussion of Hund’s rules
added.
- Dec. 20, 2007. Version 3 beta 3.4 cleans up the format of the
notes.

No more need for loading an interminable web page of 64 notes all at the same time over your phone line to read 20 words. It also corrects a few errors, one important one pointed out by Johann Joss. It also also extends some further griping about correlation energy to all three web locations. You may surmise from the lack of progress that I have been installing Linux on my home PC. You are right. - Sept. 9, 2007. Version 3 beta 3.3 mainly adds sections on
solids, that have been combined with rewritten free and nearly-free
electrons sections into a full chapter on solids. The rest of the
old chapter on examples of multiple particle systems has been pushed
back into the basic multiple particle systems chapter. A completely
nonsensical discussion in a paragraph of the free-electron gas
section was corrected; I cannot believe I have read over that
several times. I probably was reading what I wanted to say instead
of what I said. The alternative name
twilight terms

has been substituted forexchange terms.

Many minor changes. - July 19, 2007. Version 3 beta 3.2 adds a section on
Hartree-Fock. It took forever. My main regret is that most of them
who wasted my time in this major way are probably no longer around
to be properly blasted. Writing a book on quantum mechanics by an
engineer for engineers is a minefield of having to see through
countless poor definitions and dubious explanations. It takes
forever. In view of the fact that many of those physicist were
probably supported by tax payers much of the time, it should not be
such an absolute mess!
There are some additions on Born-Oppenheimer and the variational formulation that were in the Hartree-Fock section, but that I took out, since they seemed to be too general to be shoved away inside an application. Also rewrote section 5.7 and subsection 5.9.2 to be consistent, and in particular in order to have a single consistent notation. Zero point energy (the vacuum kind) is back. What the heck.

- May 21, 2007. An updated version 3 beta 3.1 to correct a poorly
written subsection on quantum confinement for the particle in a
pipe. Thanks to Swapnil Jain for pointing out the problem. I do
not want people to get lost so early in the game, so I made it a
priority correction. In general, I do think that the sections added
later to the document are not of the same quality as the original
with regard to writing style. The reason is simple. When I wrote
the original, I was on a sabbatical and had plenty of time to think
and rethink how it would be clearest. The later sections are
written during the few spare hours I can dig up. I write them and
put them in. I would need a year off to do this as it really should
be done.
- May 5, 2007. There are now lists of key points and review
questions for chapter 3. That makes it the 3 beta 3 version.
Various other fixes, like spectral line broadening, Helium's refusal
to take on electrons, and countless other less than ideal phrasings.
And full solutions of the harmonic oscillator, spherical harmonics,
and hydrogen wave function ODEs, Mandelshtam-Tamm energy-time
uncertainty, (all in the notes.) A dice is now a die, though it
sounds horrible to me. Zero point energy went out again as too
speculative.
- April 2, 2007. There are now lists of key points and review
questions for chapter 2. That makes it the 3 beta 2 version. So I
guess the final beta version will be 3 beta 6. Various other fixes.
I also added, probably unwisely, a note about zero point energy.
- Mid Feb.,2007. There are now lists of key points and review
questions for chapter 1. Answers are in the new solution manual.
- Mid Jan., 2007. Added sections on confinement and density of
states, a commutator reference, a section on unsteady perturbed two
state systems, and an advanced chapter on angular momentum, the
Dirac equation, the electromagnetic field, and NMR. Fixed a dubious
phrasing about the Dirac equation and other minor changes.
- Mid April, 2006. Various minor fixes. Also I changed the
format from the
article” to the “book

style. - Mid Feb., 2006. A new version was posted. Main differences are
correction of a number of errors and improved descriptions of the
free-electron and band spectra. There is also a rewrite of the many
worlds interpretation to be clearer and less preachy.
- May 11 2005. I got cold feet on immediately jumping into
separation of variables, so I added a section on a particle in a
pipe.
- May 4, 2005. A revised version was posted. I finally read the
paper by Everett, III on the many worlds interpretation, and
realized that I had to take the crap out of pretty much all my
discussions. I also rewrote everything to try to make it easier to
follow. I added the motion of wave packets to the discussion and
expanded the one on Newtonian motion.
- Nov 27, 2004. A revised version was posted, fixing a major
blunder related to a nasty problem in using classical spring
potentials for more than a single particle. The fix required
extensive changes. This version also added descriptions of how the
wave function of larger systems is formed.
- Oct 24, 2004. The first version of this manuscript was posted.

Part I is a draft.

Part II is mostly in a fairly good shape. But there are a few recent additions that probably could do with another look. Of course, fairly good is not the same as good. Chapter 7 is poor.

In Part III various parts sure could do with a few more rewrites. For example, the thermodynamics chapter is quite embarrassing. The chapter on nuclei is an incomplete absolute mess.

The shape of addenda and notes is pretty much like their root chapters.

Somewhat notably missing at this time:

- 1.
- Electron split experiments. Do engineers need it?? Some mention is now in the basic ideas chapter.
- 2.
- Quantum electrodynamics. (The full relativistic theory.) Do engineers need it??
- 3.
- Density-functional theory.
- 4.
- Mössbauer effect.
- 5.
- Superfluidity (but there is not really a microscopic theory.)
- 6.
- Superconductivity.